مرجع مقاله و تحقیق
مقاله،تحقیق،ترفند،ویدیو آموزشی،سخت افزار،نرم افزار،اینترنت،وب،شبکه،ارتباطات،موبایل،معرفی رشته ها
مقاله، تحقیق، ترفند، ویدیو آموزشی، سخت افزار، نرم افزار، اینترنت، وب،
شبکه، ارتباطات، موبایل، معرفی رشته ها، ترجمه انواع متون، زبان انگلیسی،
مدیر وبلاگ : مهران
همه ما به احمال زیاد ویندوز را بارها به صورت استاندارد نصب کردیم . موضوع قابل توجه این است که ویندوز را به طرق متفاوتی می توان نصب کرد : Answer File , Lan, Remote ....در این مقاله که مرجع آن سایت مایکروسافت می باشد در مورد (RIS(remote installation service توضیح کامل و مرجع داداه شده است که به علت طولانی بودن در دو مقاله رایه می دهم
قسمت اول :
Remote Operating System Installation
The Microsoft® Windows® 2000 Remote OS Installation feature, based on the Remote Installation Services (RIS) technology, gives administrators the ability to deploy an operating system throughout the enterprise, without the need to physically visit each client computer.
One of the most challenging and costly functions performed by IT staff today is the deployment of a new operating system to client computers. The Remote OS Installation feature uses the new PXE-based remote boot technology to assist IT staff with the deployment of Windows 2000 Professional in a remote way, thus reducing IT support overhead in bringing new computers online, and in reinstalling operating systems in the field.
On This Page
Remote Operating System (OS) Installation and IntelliMirror™ management technologies are important change and configuration management features included in the Microsoft® Windows® 2000 operating system. Remote OS Installation allows systems administrators to use the new Pre-Boot eXecution Environment (PXE)-based remote-boot technology, and server-based software to install local copies of the Windows 2000 Professional operating system on computers throughout the enterprise. After Windows 2000 is operational on a computer, network administrators, using IntelliMirror technology, can provide policy-based management of users' Windows 2000–based desktops, including data, settings, and application software.
The following table highlights the Windows 2000 Change and Configuration Management features and benefits, as well as the underlying technologies that support these features.
One of the most challenging and costly functions performed by IT staff today is the deployment of an operating system (OS) to new or existing client computers. Currently, organizations spend a great deal of time and expense planning, designing, and rolling out the latest version of the operating system throughout the organization. Often this process is done manually, requiring a help desk professional to physically visit each computer.
The Remote Installation Services (RIS), an optional component of the Windows 2000 Server operating system, works with other Windows 2000 technologies to implement the Remote OS Installation feature, providing companies with the ability to remotely install a copy of the Windows 2000 Professional operating system on supported computers throughout the enterprise. Now an administrator can roll out a new version of the operating system to hundreds, even thousands of clients at one time, and do so from a remote location.
Computers that are PC98-compliant ship with a PXE Remote Boot ROM, which is required in order to use the Remote OS Installation feature. (PC98 refers to the annual guide for hardware developers co-authored by Microsoft with Intel, including contributions from Compaq and other industry hardware manufacturers. PC98 is intended to provide standards for hardware development that advance the PC platform and enable Microsoft to include advanced features, like RIS, in the Windows platform.) For computers in your organization that do not contain a PXE-based remote boot ROM, Microsoft provides the administrator with a tool to create a remote boot disk for use with RIS. The RIS remote boot disk can be used with a variety of supported PCI-based network adapter cards. The Network PC—a slimmed down version of a personal computer without a floppy disk or CD-ROM drive—will be one of the first client computers to take advantage of RIS. Because of its lack of an external floppy disk drive, the Net PC will require use of the Remote OS Installation feature for the installation of the workstation operating system.
Overview of the Technology and Terminology
This section provides an overview of the Remote Installation Services (RIS) architecture and other components and Windows 2000 services that are required to take advantage of the Remote OS Installation feature. This section also describes the client components and services that are required in order to implement Remote OS Installation in your organization.
Remote OS Installation Overview
Figure 1 illustrates the services and components that make up the Remote OS Installation feature.
Figure 1: Remote OS Installation
Remote OS Installation uses some of the existing services that may already be deployed and in use within your organization, as well adds some additional services that you may or may not be familiar with. Windows 2000 Server ships with Active Directory™ directory service, an updated Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, and a compliant version of Dynamic Domain Name Server (DDNS) that is required by the Active Directory. When Remote Installation Services are installed, these additional services are added to the server:
Remote OS Installation uses the new Pre-Boot eXecution Environment (PXE) DHCP-based remote boot technology to initiate the installation of an operating system from a remote source to a client hard disk. The remote source—a server that supports Remote Installation Services (RIS)—provides the network equivalent of a CD-based installation of Windows 2000 Professional or a pre-configured Remote Installation Preparation (RIPrep) desktop image. The Windows 2000 Professional operating system is currently the only installation option supported by Remote Installation Services.
Once the images have been posted on the RIS server(s), end users equipped with PXE based remote boot-enabled (or compatible boot disk) client computers can request to install those images from any available RIS server on the network. The fact that the user can install the operating system without administrator assistance means the administrator is free to complete other tasks requiring his or her attention, thus saving both time and expense normally associated with operating system installations.
How the PXE Remote Boot Technology Works
A new form of remote boot technology has been created within the computing industry. The new remote boot technology, Pre-Boot eXecution Environment (PXE), provides companies with the ability to use their existing TCP/IP network infrastructure with the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to discover remote installation servers on the network. Net PC/PC98-compliant systems, and computers equipped with network interface cards (NICs) supported by the RIS remote boot disk can take advantage of the remote boot technology included in the Windows 2000 operating system.
When a PXE-enabled client computer is turned on, the PXE-based ROM or RIS remote boot disk requests an IP address from a DHCP server using the normal DHCP discovery process. As part of the initial DHCP discover request, the client computer identifies itself as being PXE-enabled, which indicates to the remote installation servers on the network that it is looking to be serviced. Any available RIS server on the network can respond by providing the client with its IP address, and the name of a boot file the client should request if that client wants service from that server.
Below is a diagram, Figure 2, which describes the step-by-step process the PXE remote boot ROM goes through during every network service boot request.
Figure 2: PXE Remote Boot ROM Boot sequence
After the procedure reaches step 7, the client side experience will be different, depending on the remote installation server vendor that is responding to the client request for service. The section below details the implementation of Remote OS Installation that is included in the Windows 2000 Server operating system.
How the Remote OS Installation Process Works
A graphical representation of how the Remote OS Installation process works is contained in Figure 3. Each step of the process is defined in detail below the illustration
Figure 3: Remote Installation Services architecture
The process of contacting a RIS server and selecting an operating system image is accomplished in a few steps. The steps below detail the sequence of events that occur when a PXE-enabled client computer starts on the network, and is serviced by a RIS server.
To accomplish a Remote OS Installation
The Remote OS Installation process is straightforward from an end user perspective. The administrator can guide the user through a successful operating system installation by pre-determining which installation options, if any, an end user has access to. The administrator can also restrict which operating system image or images a user has access to, thus ensuring the correct operating system installation type is offered to the user for a successful installation.
Remote Installation Services Components
The Windows 2000 Remote OS Installation feature simplifies the task of installing an operating system by providing a mechanism for computers to connect to a network server when they are initially started, and by allowing the server to drive a local installation of Windows 2000 Professional. There are several components that make up the Remote Installation Services (RIS), the technology that supports the Remote OS Installation feature. This section discusses the various components that an administrator or IT professional uses to install, configure, and implement RIS within their organization in order to deploy the Windows 2000 Professional operating system.
There are five major components that make up RIS:
Note: For additional information on installing, configuring, and implementing Remote OS Installation, see the Windows 2000 Remote OS Installation walk through listed in the For More Information section of this document.
Remote Installation Services Setup
RIS is installed one of two ways, and requires a two-stage installation process. RIS is an optional component of the Windows 2000 Server operating system, and can be installed either during the installation of Windows 2000 Server, or after installation by using Add/Remove Programs in Control Panel.
The first stage of installation occurs when RIS is selected as an optional component during Windows 2000 Server installation or after the server installation by using Add/Remove Programs. The Windows Components wizard displays Remote Installation Services as an optional component for installation, and is illustrated in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Optional component: Remote Installation Services
After Remote Installation Services is selected as an optional component, the first stage of the RIS installation copies the required files to the hard disk drive on the server. After the setup of the server is completed, the administrator is prompted to shutdown and restart the server before installing Remote Installation Services.
To install Remote Installation Services
The Remote Installation Services Setup wizard prompts the administrator for information about specific settings used in the RIS installation. The wizard asks the administrator to provide the following items:
After the Remote Installation Services Setup wizard completes, depending on the settings chosen, the RIS server either services client computers, or pauses while the administrator configures advanced settings using the RIS administration settings. The section below describes the configuration options available to an RIS administrator.
Remote Installation Services Administration and Configuration Options
By default, a RIS server is not configured to service client computers immediately after the installation of RIS is completed. If the administrator wants to configure the server to service client computers at the completion of RIS Setup, the administrator can simply accept the default configuration settings, and begin offering users operating system installation images without changing a single configuration setting.
RIS provides the administrator with a variety of options and configuration settings. These settings provide flexibility with regard to specific scenarios, such as the type of automatic computer naming policy to use, which Active Directory container client computer accounts are created in, and which operating system images an end user will have access to. For more detail regarding individual configuration options, refer to the RIS walkthrough document in the For More Information section, or check the Remote Installation Services Help on the Windows 2000 Server CD, which is also available on the Windows 2000 Server Web site (http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windows2000serv/default.mspx).
There are four methods used to configure the available RIS options.
The first method involves specifying which RIS servers are allowed to run on your network. This option prevents unauthorized (often referred to as rogue) RIS servers, ensuring only those RIS servers authorized by administrators can service clients. If an attempt is made to start an unauthorized RIS server on the network, it will be automatically shut down and thus unable to service client computers. A RIS server must be authorized before it can service client computers.
The second method uses the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in to set properties on individual RIS servers that control how the server supplies Remote Installation Services to requesting clients. This snap-in is available by going to the Start menu, pointing to Programs, then to Administrative Tools, and then clicking Active Directory Users and Computers.. The snap-in that appears is illustrated in Figure 5. Administrators wishing to remotely manage their servers from Windows 2000 Professional workstations can access the administrative tools by installing the Administrator Tools package located on the Windows 2000 Server CD.
Note: When using Administrator Tools on a system other than the RIS server, the administrator cannot add additional operating system images or verify the integrity of the RIS server. All other configuration options are available.
Figure 5: The Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in
After the RIS server is selected, right click it to open the Properties dialog box, and click the Remote Install tab to access the RIS server configuration options. The Properties dialog box is illustrated in Figure 6.
Figure 6: Properties dialog box for RIS server
The following list describes the major configuration options available in the Properties dialog box: for the RIS server
Co-existence of remote installation servers from multiple vendors: For companies that have remote boot and installation servers from other vendors that are operating on the same physical network, RIS servers can be set to respond only to service requests from clients that have been prestaged in Active Directory. When set to ignore boot requests from unknown clients, RIS servers can be introduced into a network without interfering with pre-existing remote installation servers that use the same remote boot protocols.
Client Installation Wizard
Extended characters in the CIW: Because the CIW is running in a pre-boot execution environment, there is no support for extended characters in either the text displayed or the input fields (user name, password, domain, or any custom input parameters). Careful consideration should be taken before creating user or domain names that contain extended characters since they will be not be usable with RIS.
Once the client computer establishes a connection with the RIS server, the user is prompted to initiate a network service boot by pressing the F12 function key. The Client Installation wizard (CIW), illustrated in Figure 7, is then automatically downloaded to the client computer. The user is prompted to enter their user name, password, and domain. After authenticating the user in Active Directory, the CIW optionally provides the end user or IT administrator with the ability to select from a menu of installation options and operating system images to control how and which operating system image will be installed. If the user running the CIW has only been granted access to the Automatic installation option and a single operating system image, neither menu is displayed, and the user proceeds directly to the confirmation and summary screens.
Figure 7: The Client Installation wizard
The following installation options are included in the Client Installation wizard. Automatic setup is available by default. RIS uses Group Policy settings to allow access to the automatic setup option only, and to restrict all users and administrators from the rest of the installation options described below.
To control the setup options displayed to users in the CIW, use Group Policy as described in the "Administration and Configuration Options" section.
If the user has more than one operating system image available to them for installation, the list of images is displayed for selection. The user is then presented with confirmation and summary screens, after which the installation of the image on the client computer begins immediately.
The screens and text displayed in the CIW can also be customized, and additional screens can be displayed to the user if desired. For example, if users must enter a specific configuration parameter during the CIW, a custom screen can be created and linked to those already displayed. Such parameters can then be passed to the .sif file of the selected operating system installation image. For more information on customizing the CIW screens, see the Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit (available in Microsoft TechNet).
Remote Installation Preparation Wizard
Note: See the "Remote OS Installation Usage Scenarios" section later in this document for details on how to combine the Windows 2000 Group Policy and Software Installation and Maintenance features with Remote OS Installation to create standard desktop images that include applications.
There are two types of operating system images supported by Remote OS Installation: CD-based images and RIPrep images. The CD-based option is similar to setting up a client operating system directly from the Windows 2000 Professional CD, but in this case, the source files reside on an RIS server. However, more companies are beginning to implement a corporate standard desktop policy. This policy requires that users install only approved versions of an operating system and associated applications or application suites. These desktop standards have a variety of names, such as Standard or Common Operating Environments (SOEs or COEs), but all usually involve packaging the operating system, required service packs, a set of applications, and appropriate operating system and application configuration settings into a single, tested, and supported unit.
In order to build and maintain standard desktops, many companies use disk imaging or cloning software that allows an administrator to configure a client computer exactly how he or she wants it, following company standards and software policies, and then make a copy of that image for installation on client computers on the network. Remote OS Installation supports creation and installation of standard desktop images using the RIPrep feature.
One of the biggest limitations in most imaging technologies is the requirement that the destination computer (the computer that will receive the image) contain identical hardware to that of the source computer used to create the image.
An important element of the RIPrep feature is the fact that the destination computer (the computer that installs the image posted to the RIS server) is not required to contain hardware identical to that of the source computer that was used to create the image. RIPrep uses the Plug and Play support in the computer running Windows 2000 Professional to detect differences between the source and the destination computers' hardware during image installation. The exception is that the hardware abstraction layer (HAL) drivers must be the same between the source computer and all destination computers that later install the image. However, in most cases, workstations do not require the unique HAL drivers that servers require. The primary difference in HAL drivers for workstations is whether systems contain Advanced Configuration Power Interface (ACPI) support versus a non-ACPI supported computer. When using RIPrep, you must create and maintain separate installation images for systems that have ACPI or other features that require the use of specific HAL drivers, but other hardware differences, such as video or disk controllers, can be automatically accommodated for hardware compatible with Windows 2000.
Figure 8: The RIPrep wizard
Note: If the source computer contains a 1 gigabyte (GB) disk drive and the destination computer contains a 2-GB disk drive, by default RIS will format the destination computers drive as a 2-GB partition in the same file system format as the source computer used to create the image.
The Remote Installation Preparation wizard (RIPrep.exe), which is part of the Remote OS Installation feature, is illustrated in Figure 8. The RIPrep wizard provides the combined ability to prepare an existing Windows 2000 Professional installation for use as an image to be installed on other computers, including any locally installed applications and/or specific configuration settings, and to replicate that image to an available RIS server on the network. The RIPrep feature currently supports replicating a single disk-single partition (C partition only) Windows 2000 Professional installation to an available RIS server. This means that the operating system and all of the applications that make up the standard installation must reside on the C partition prior to running the RIPrep wizard.
Creating the Source Computer
To create the source computer, the administrator first uses the Remote OS Installation feature to remotely install the base Windows 2000 Professional operating system. Once the operating system is installed, the administrator can install applications or application suites including in-house line of business (LOB) applications. The administrator then configures the workstation to adhere to company policies. For example, the administrator may choose to define specific screen colors, set the background bitmap to a company-based logo, remove any games installed by the base operating system, and set Internet Explorer proxy settings.
Configuring the Workstation
When creating RIPrep images, it is important to understand the relationship of user profiles, the changes made to a RIPrep source computer, and the desired result for users that log on to computers that are installed using the RIPrep image. Windows 2000 Logo-compliant applications properly separate user-specific and computer-specific configuration settings and data, and can therefore be installed computer-wide so that they are available to all users of the system. Such applications would also then be available to all users of systems later installed with the resulting RIPrep image. Non-Windows 2000-compliant applications may perform and/or rely on per-user configurations that are specific to the profile of the user actually installing the application prior to running RIPrep (typically a local administrator), rather than to all users of the system. Such configurations remain specific to that user, which may result in the application or configuration setting not being available or not functioning properly for users of computers installed with the RIPrep image. In addition, some non-application configuration changes, such as the wallpaper specified for the user desktop, are by default applied only to the current user's profile, and will not be applied to users of systems installed with the RIPrep image.
Therefore, you must thoroughly test any applications or configuration settings desired for use in a RIPrep image to ensure they will work properly with your organization's implementation of user profiles. To do so, make the change as one user (typically a local administrator of the computer), log off, and log on as a user account that is representative of your organization. If the changes you made are applied to the second user, the changes should also apply to users that log on to systems installed with a RIPrep image that contains the same change. To complete the test, create a RIPrep image, restore it to a different computer, and log on as a different representative user. Verify that the changes are applied and fully functional.
Some configuration settings can be copied directly from the profile they were applied to (the local administrator in the above example) to the All Users profile, such as the desktop wallpaper, some Start menu options, and shortcuts. However, all such changes must be tested carefully to verify that their functionality is not broken by the manual adjustments.
Running the Remote Installation Preparation Wizard
Once the workstation is configured exactly the way the administrator likes, they are ready to run the Remote Installation Preparation wizard.
The RIPrep wizard starts by prompting the administrator for specific settings relating to the image they are about to post on the RIS server. The administrator is asked where the image should be replicated, that is to which RIS server, and to provide a directory name on the RIS server where the image should be replicated. The wizard prompts the administrator to provide a friendly description and associated Help text describing the contents of this image to end users running the Client Installation wizard. After the initial image questions have been answered, the wizard configures the workstation to a generic state, removing anything unique to the client installation such as the computer's unique security ID (SID), computer name, and any registry settings unique to that system. Once the preparation phase is complete, the image is automatically replicated to the RIS server provided. After the image is replicated to the RIS server, it is added to the list of available OS installation choices displayed within the CIW. At this point, any remote boot-enabled or compatible client computers that use the PXE-based remote boot technology can install the image.
Remote Installation Services Boot Disk
There are two types of remote boot-enabled client computers:
نوع مطلب :
برچسب ها :
لینک های مرتبط :